14 Conflict Resolution Therapy in Primary Schools

Alannah McLatchey


This literature review examines the prevalence and consequence of peer conflict within primary schools. Peer conflict is the result of varying social goals developed by children throughout their social interactions. Severe peer conflict has contributed to the decline in academic and behavioural standards while in school for both perpetrators and victims of peer conflict. Data from current research indicates that severe peer conflict includes bullying and fighting as primary conflicts. Current literature indicates a need to incorporate peer conflict resolution interventions into primary schools. Data also suggests that the impact of peer conflict is felt not only in primary school, but also in high school and further into adulthood. Impacts on wellbeing, socio-emotional capabilities and individual employment and finance of adults who experienced severe peer conflict at school have been noted. Additionally, this literature review considers future research considerations to further explore and combat peer conflict in primary schools, including localised research, meta-analyses, intervention comparisons and longitudinal studies.

Keywords: Peer conflict, primary schools, conflict resolution


As children begin their journey through school, a natural consequence of spending time with more and varied people is peer conflict. Peer conflict, however, can become a concern when its frequency and severity increase. Conflict occurring in high schools is well documented (Arseneault, 2018; de Sousa et al., 2021). Concerns, however, of conflicts occurring within primary school settings are also gaining traction (Kasari et al., 2016). Experiencing ongoing and severe peer conflict is challenging for individuals in a variety of ways, and so it is important to consider ways to address this concern in a holistic manner, such as through conflict resolution interventions. Research has been building in this area, however, to date there are gaps in research for Australian primary school settings that need to be addressed. It is therefore important to consider building current literature from an Australian perspective, to ensure peer conflict is being measured and resolved based on its prevalence in Australian primary schools.

Sources were selected for this literature review based on the following exclusion criteria. All research to be included in this review was required to be peer-reviewed. There was also a strong preference for quantitative studies, however, some qualitative studies were also included based on the information and insight they provided. Issues with generalisability of these studies were noted. Peer-reviewed research was only excluded if it was not written in English to ensure clarity of information and to avoid misrepresenting research findings. In addition, all relevant research articles were included, regardless of the country the study was conducted in, to examine the prevalence of the issue at a global level.

This literature review will therefore first define the key concepts related to the working topic, before analysing the concepts of peer conflict and conflict resolution. It will then proceed to explore the impact of peer conflict in terms of school environment, the child and child development, and on future-reaching impacts into adulthood. It will then address the perceived benefits to individuals, the community and the counselling profession should severe peer conflict be addressed and resolved, before concluding with a brief discussion of potential future research that works to address peer conflict in primary schools.

Key Concepts

School Environment

In addition to the importance of family upbringing, education settings contribute significantly to child development, through interactions with physical, social, and academic learning experiences (Mikerova et al., 2018; Tapia-Fonllem et al., 2020). Physical experiences refer to the classroom, yard and playground of an education setting that a student has access to, while academic experiences refer to levels of interest encouraged in learning, provision of opportunities to think creatively and critically, and opportunities for independent achievement in learning (Mikerova et al., 2018; Tapia-Fonllem et al., 2020). Most relevant to this review is the social experiences aspect of the school environment. Social experiences refer to coexistence and peer interactions, student-teacher interactions and experiences of justice and consequences (Tapia-Fonllem et al., 2020). Whether there are positive or negative experiences of physical, social, and academic concepts, they each contribute to and influence the perceived atmosphere of the education setting by students (Tapia-Fonllem et al., 2020). Due to their holistic nature of physical, social and academic experiences in education settings, each of these concepts all work together to create the school environment experienced by primary school students.

Peer Conflict

As children develop, peer interactions and reactions form a more significant platform in which social goals are created (Dunn et al., 2022). One component of social development that bears note is that of social goal development and moral reasoning (Dunn et al., 2022). Social goals refer to individual and peer desires to avoid conflict, achieve acceptance, and establish and maintain social status (Dunn et al., 2022; Hughes & Im, 2016). As well as other child characteristics, poor social skill development of social goals and moral reasoning may impact on student likeability according to peers As well as other child characteristics, poor social skill development of social goals and moral reasoning may impact student likeability according to peers. (Hughes & Im, 2016). In addition to being disliked, moral or social disparity between friends may occur as the development of individual self-interests and relationship maintenance desires interact, causing friction within friendship circles (Dunn et al., 2022; Hughes & Im, 2016). Therefore, within this review, peer conflict can be defined as interactions between peers where an individual’s decisions of self-interest and social goal development negatively impact on the likability of the individual to their peers, whether the individuals are acquaintance-peers or a part of friendship groups.

Conflict Resolution

People employ a range of strategies to deal with conflict when it arises. The use of strategies to resolve conflict can be conceptualised in both positive, or adaptive, and negative, or maladaptive, manifestations, where the degree of effectiveness can be measured by the amount of resolution achieved (Fernet et al., 2016; Marceau et al., 2015). Adaptive attempts to address conflict can be identified through demonstrations of openness and flexibility, sensitivity to the emotions of others, and seeking clarification of concerns being raised (Fernet et al., 2016). Maladaptive attempts to address conflict might manifest through anger and hostility, problem-focused conversation rather than solution-focused, or even coercion (Fernet et al., 2016; Marceau et al., 2015). A key component of conflict resolution is the ability to identify, establish and even question expectations or boundaries between parties experiencing conflict to overcome it (Fernet et al., 2016). Conflict resolution will therefore be conceptualised within this review as the ability to address conflict using adaptive conflict management strategies which seek to clarify and change, or correct, factors that have caused the initial conflict.

Analysis of Peer Conflict and Conflict Resolution

There are two key components involved in the examination of conflict resolution skills in primary-aged students: peer conflict in primary schools, and conflict resolution skills in children. Both components need to be examined to identify potential sources of peer conflict.

Peer Conflict in Primary Schools

Some peer conflict should be expected as child development continues, and children learn to peacefully coexist with each other (Dunn et al., 2022). Studies have revealed, however, that conflict in primary schools is occurring with astounding frequency, with particular emphasis on pre-adolescent students, noting that instances of excessive peer conflict were being felt by up to 66% of students (Fujikawa et al., 2021; Stankovic et al., 2022). There are significant developmental and cognitive changes occurring within primary-aged students, which may contribute to the prevalence of peer conflict within primary schools (Stankovic et al., 2022). Further, environmental factors, such as home life, and additional factors such as emerging mental health issues or learning impairments, are being identified as potential contributors to increasing demonstrations of peer conflict within primary schools (Fujikawa et al., 2021; Opoku-Asare et al., 2015; Stankovic et al., 2022).

The presence of peer conflict within primary schools has been distinctly noted by many researchers, ranging from bullying to relational aggression and even fighting at an international level (Fujikawa et al., 2021; Opoku-Asare et al., 2015; Stankovic et al., 2022; Xue et al., 2022). The most frequent manifestations of peer conflict identified in existing research were bullying, both physically and relationally (Fujikawa et al., 2021). Several researchers have suggested that the frequency of peer conflict in primary schools may be the result of a lack of self-control held by students, or a potential lack of conflict resolution role models (Opoku-Asare et al., 2015; Xue et al., 2022). In contrast, other research indicates that perpetrators of peer conflict may not be lacking in aspects of social development (Stankovic et al., 2022). While manifestations of peer conflict in primary schools have been typically gendered—physical bullying and fighting associated with boys, and relational and covert aggression associated with girls—both genders have been found to use any of form of peer conflict, through gendered preferences may still exist (Fujikawa et al., 2021; Stankovic et al., 2022; Xue et al., 2022).

Conflict Resolution Skills in Children

In contrast to the studies mentioned above, other studies indicate that students are developing conflict resolution skills throughout their education, and indeed, through group activities undertaken outside of educational institutions, such as Scouts or sports (Asensio-Ramon et al., 2020). It is suggested that the more students are involved in activities that require cooperation, there is an increase in the development of social skills such as cooperation, discipline and motivation (Asensio-Ramon et al., 2020). In almost direct contrast to research identifying climbing rates of peer-conflict, one study suggests that children are actually ‘instinctive co-operators’ (Ingram et al., 2012). It is further observed that while children typically seek to minimise conflict occurrences, their own conflict-resolution strategies may not be effective in managing conflict, and thus may require guidance from adults to refine and develop strategies that are aimed at peaceful and constructive conflict resolution (Asensio-Ramon et al., 2020; Ingram et al., 2012; Santamaría-Villar et al., 2021). It should be noted that one of these studies used qualitative research methods, and while this is a valuable collection of data, it may not be as easily applicable to all contexts when compared to the quantitative research that has also been conducted. Regardless, the commonalities between the qualitative and quantitative research aid conclusions about conflict resolution skills in children.

Studies from Da Silva et al (2018), Santamaría-Villar et al (2021), and Sellman (2011) have further indicated that student conflict resolution skills drastically improved with guidance and intervention, through programs, curriculum and adult modelling and mediation. Empowering students with the skills to effectively manage conflict as it arises was found to be present a year after initial research was conducted, demonstrating that children have the capacity to correct their existing conflict management strategies with more effective methods (da Silva et al., 2018). Research by Asensio-Ramon et al. (2020), da Silva et al. (2018), Ingram et al. (2012), Santamaría-Villar et al. (2021), and Sellman (2011) therefore conclude that while children are capable and eager to reduce conflict through resolution strategies, it is important and extremely beneficial for children to receive guidance to develop and refine their existing conflict management skills.

Impacts of Peer Conflict

On School Environments

Severe peer conflict also has an impact on the educational institutions themselves. Research has revealed that school environments can also feed or limit the occurrences of severe peer conflicts (Acosta et al., 2019; Konishi et al., 2017). While this finding does put the onus of dealing with severe peer conflict on education institutions, it is important to note that students who are experiencing peer conflict may not necessarily report incidences of conflict with staff (Konishi et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2021). One study indicates that positive school environments mediate instances of severe peer conflict, through facets of connectedness and safety (Acosta et al., 2019). Another study indicated that it was peer support, of either the victim or the perpetrator, that influenced the prevalence of peer conflict in schools, which is consistent with child development findings regarding the significance of peer relationships (Dunn et al., 2022; Konishi et al., 2017).

In contrast, a third study found positive school environments only mediated bullying reports for male students (Zhang et al., 2021). Zhang et al (2021) suggest potential contributors to this finding may be seen through differences in how the genders bully and are bullied, alongside negative female stress coping strategies. This suggests that concerns about reporting severe peer conflict While positive school environments might mediate some aspects of peer conflict, they do not address them all. may even establish a cycle of further conflict (Acosta et al., 2019; Zhang et al., 2021). Concerns about reporting incidences of peer conflict with education staff contradict research indicating that students dealing with conflict need greater levels of adult support (Acosta et al., 2019; Konishi et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2021). These studies all suggest that while positive school environments might mediate some aspects of peer conflict, they do not address them all, leaving students vulnerable to conflicts and unwilling to report these conflicts to staff (Acosta et al., 2019; Zhang et al., 2021). When noting the implications of these findings on the impact of peer conflict on the school environment, the studies all noted the importance of adopting school-based intervention efforts (Acosta et al., 2019; Konishi et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2021).

On Children

The types of peer conflict being experienced in primary schools are varied and pervasive. While there is a range of potential peer conflicts, more severe instances include victimisation through fighting and bullying (Arseneault, 2018; Fujikawa et al., 2021; Stankovic et al., 2022). These conflicts can have a large impact on the children involved. Relationally, peer conflict may result in the diminished wellbeing of young students and even halt the formation of positive peer relationships (Arseneault, 2018; Fujikawa et al., 2021; Tapia-Fonllem et al., 2020). In a review of research on the impact of conflict amongst children, it was noted that prolonged exposure to peer conflict was linked to both increases in mental health issues and increased emotional outbursts for students in both childhood and adolescence, a finding supported by other studies (Arseneault, 2018; Fujikawa et al., 2021; Opoku-Asare et al., 2015). Worryingly, there are indications that students who experience this type of conflict in primary schools are likely to continue to experience it in secondary school (Fujikawa et al., 2021).

Peer conflict can also impact the child academically. It was found that peer conflict can lead to a reduction in enjoyment, productivity and commitment of primary school students to their learning and may also contribute to a loss of motivation to attend or engage in education practices (Arseneault, 2018; Opoku-Asare et al., 2015). This is concerning as studies have indicated incidences of severe peer conflict occurring as early as grade 3 (Fujikawa et al., 2021; Stankovic et al., 2022).

On Development

Peer conflict is often a demonstration of peer rejection towards individual students (da Silva et al., 2019). When individuals are continually rejected by peers, they lose access to a fundamental component of development: prosocial behaviour models (da Silva et al., 2019). Research indicates that excessive peer conflict may lead to ‘socio-emotional maladjustment’ for both victims and perpetrators of the conflict, in particular lacking assertiveness and lacking empathy respectively (da Silva et al., 2019; de Sousa et al., 2021). Early research has indicated that perpetrators of peer conflict may lack social skills to appropriately handle conflict situations (Larke & Beran, 2006). However current research has indicated that this is not the case, and perpetrators may actually have a strong grasp of social skills in order to manipulate situations for personal gain (da Silva et al., 2019; de Sousa et al., 2021; Perren et al., 2012).

While studies have noted that students targeted by peer conflict may already demonstrate deficits in social skill development, correlations have been drawn between social skill deficits and their continued existence in the future when mediated by bullying behaviours (de Sousa et al., 2021; Perren et al., 2012). In addition, early onset of depression in 12-year-old students due to internalising issues may also be linked to previous and ongoing peer conflicts (Perren et al., 2012). The conclusion that can be drawn from this research is that existing social deficits may lead to greater instances of severe peer conflict, however, the continued rejection by peers disables any attempts at correcting deficits in adolescent education (da Silva et al., 2019; Perren et al., 2012).

Into Adulthood

As well as impacting the child at the time of the conflict, excessive peer conflict can also impact adulthood. Mental health issues triggered by peer conflict may pervade into adulthood, through stress-related and depressive manifestations (Arseneault, 2018). The increase in mental health issues due to bullying in childhood is also associated with increased mental health services costs in adulthood (Brimblecombe et al., 2018). As previously identified, persistent peer conflict could lead to disengagement with education (Opoku-Asare et al., 2015). This disengagement was also associated with lower education levels, leading the adult victims into lower-income work or unemployment (Arseneault, 2018; Brimblecombe et al., 2018; Wolke et al., 2013). While health impacts have been raised in several studies, it is difficult to measure the degree physical health is impacted by childhood peer conflict (Arseneault, 2018; Brimblecombe et al., 2018; Wolke et al., 2013).

Social impacts of childhood peer conflict have also been noted into adulthood. Difficulty in making and keeping friends, and also maintaining relationships with parents and co-workers were identified in young adults who had experienced severe peer conflict in childhood (Arseneault, 2018; Wolke et al., 2013). In addition to poorer relational skills, it was also noted that conflict resolution skills in adulthood could also be unassertive or maladaptive (Wolke et al., 2013).

In addition to the impacts on the victims of peer conflict in childhood, perpetrators of conflict were also found to be impacted in adulthood, after childhood family life was controlled for (Wolke et al., 2013). In a review of meta-analyses on adulthood impacts of childhood perpetrators, it was found they were more likely to engage in illegal behaviours and other offences in adulthood (Arseneault, 2018; Wolke et al., 2013). The review suggests that being bullied in childhood is an independent contributor to adjustment issues into adulthood (Arseneault, 2018). Arseneault (2018) further summarises how childhood mental health problems that occur as a result of bullying may lead to a perpetuating cycle of abuse and violence into adulthood. In addition, the review indicates that untreated psychological stress can lead to these issues in adulthood, concerns which are echoed by Wolke et al. (2013) (Arseneault, 2018).

Potential Benefits of Addressing Peer Conflicts

Resolving peer conflict within primary schools has far-reaching effects; not only would addressing peer conflict benefit individual students and potential counselling clients, but it would also benefit the school communities addressing the issue, as well as the broader counselling profession.


An early meta-analysis on the benefits of resolving peer conflict confirms that by providing clients with the skills and strategies to deal effectively with peer conflict, students are afforded the opportunity to develop important social and life skills early on (Garrard & Lipsey, 2007; W. Heydenberk & Heydenberk, 2007). Not only this, but peer mediation as a method of resolving peer conflict was noted to improve the sense of identity, agency, and acquisition of other important life skills within the client (Sellman, 2011). Being able to resolve conflict effectively was also noted to assist in improved emotion-regulation (Malizia & Jameson, 2018)

A study testing the application of conflict resolution strategies in real-world situations after training revealed that there was an 80% uptake in improved resolution strategies, further supporting the value of resolving peer conflicts for the client (W. Heydenberk & Heydenberk, 2007). It was also noted that equipping children with conflict resolution skills early was beneficial in peer conflict prevention as well as intervention, indicating that addressing the issue of peer conflict can have future-reaching benefits as well (Malizia & Jameson, 2018; Saha, 2012). Equipping students with the ability to resolve conflicts was found to lead to a reduction in those conflicts, as well as improvement in social and emotional development (Garrard & Lipsey, 2007; W. Heydenberk & Heydenberk, 2007; Saha, 2012; Sellman, 2011). Academic performance of targeted students has also been demonstrated to improve with the resolution of peer conflicts, as noted in a review of research within this field (Malizia & Jameson, 2018).


Benefits of intervention, as well as the absence of intervention, were observed to be felt in individuals up to 18 years into the future (Konishi et al., 2017; Malizia & Jameson, 2018). Alongside improvements in student behaviours noted in the previous section, it has also been stated that in attempting to resolve severe peer conflicts, schools observed a reduction in conduct issues and emotional distress of students (Konishi et al., 2017; Malizia & Jameson, 2018). As previously noted above, severe peer conflict can also have far-reaching effects, including illegal behaviours and other offences (Arseneault, 2018; Wolke et al., 2013).

Having noted the potential benefits of addressing the issue and comparing this with the potential risks of not addressing this issue, it can be surmised that benefits to the individual are also linked to benefits for the community. Equipping students with skills of flexibility, cooperation and communication can have long term benefits for the community (Malizia & Jameson, 2018). It can thus be concluded that by seeking to equip children with effective conflict resolution strategies, the community will also benefit well into the future, with a reduced burden on the court system, and increased productivity and efficiency within the workplace (Forsyth, 2012; Malizia & Jameson, 2018). In addition to judicial and productivity gains, the community also benefits from better wellbeing of its members, increased compliance and cooperation, as well as more harmonious interactions, both in school settings, work settings and other settings (Forsyth, 2012; Malizia & Jameson, 2018).

Counselling Profession

Resolving issues surrounding peer conflict in primary schools is also beneficial for the counselling profession and in particular, school guidance officers. This field ties together both the individual benefits as well as the community benefits of resolving peer conflict in primary schools. As previously mentioned, peer conflict resolution aids the improvement of the school environment (Acosta et al., 2019; Konishi et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2021). With the improvement of educational environments and associated reductions of peer conflict, counsellors can focus on gently guiding student clients through effective strategies of conflict resolution in a pre-emptive manner, laying the foundations of life-long skills in students (da Silva et al., 2019; de Sousa et al., 2021; Ingram et al., 2012).

In addition to this, resolving this issue is beneficial to the counselling profession in several dimensions. Foremost, by offering clients and students adult support, empathetic guidance and understanding of the skills of conflict resolution, guidance counsellors can focus on improving the wellbeing of clients, directing them to support channels offered within the school (Acosta et al., 2019; Hui & Chau, 2009). Guidance counsellors will be better able to offer insight and strategies to classroom teachers as well for handling peer conflict among students (Opoku-Asare et al., 2015). Being less reactive and more pre-emptive in peer-conflict counselling with primary-aged clients will enable counsellors to direct their efforts into helping clients maintain their conflict resolution skills into adulthood, rather than establishing them after some time of maladaptive resolution strategies (Brimblecombe et al., 2018).

Potential Future Research

There are several avenues for future research to explore in relation to conflict resolution in primary schools. These avenues include researching gaps in global findings, comparing various conflict resolution interventions to determine the most effective interventions within a primary school setting, conducting meta-analyses of research findings to allow for a greater depth of understanding of what current literature is saying about the use of conflict resolution interventions within primary schools, and also comparing the effectiveness of conflict resolution interventions in primary schools versus high schools.

There has been a substantial body of literature focusing on conflict resolution interventions within a primary school setting. It should be noted, however, that most of current the literature focuses predominantly on international countries, particularly within America and the United Kingdom, with a notable lack of studies occurring within Australia (R. A. Heydenberk & Heydenberk, 2005; W. Heydenberk & Heydenberk, 2007; Kasari et al., 2016; Sellman, 2011). While it is important for researchers and counsellors alike to have a global understanding of prominent issues such as this, it is also important for Australian researchers and counsellors to have a body of research that has direct implications for best practice in Australia (Forsyth, 2012). Given the global prevalence of peer conflict and the desire to reduce it, assumptions can be made about a similar prevalence occurring within Australian primary schools (Kasari et al., 2016; Pina et al., 2021; Santamaría-Villar et al., 2021; Sellman, 2011). Extending the literature to explore the effect of conflict resolution programs within Australian schools is important for building an understanding of conflict resolution interventions within an Australian settingExtending the literature to explore the effect of conflict resolution programs within Australian schools is important for building an understanding of conflict resolution interventions within an Australian setting.. Therefore, one avenue of research would be to begin filling the gaps of research within an Australian context, where cultural values, school organisation and other possible factors may impact current research findings (Pina et al., 2021).

In addition to conducting Australian studies, future research could also explore and compare the effectiveness of different conflict resolution programmes on primary-aged children through randomised control studies. Various intervention strategies have been identified for use within primary schools, however, there are currently no studies that compare these interventions to determine the most effective (Gol-Guven, 2017; R. A. Heydenberk & Heydenberk, 2005; Pina et al., 2021). Utilising randomised control studies of different programs may help to identify the usefulness of programs over others when working with primary-aged children; it should be noted however that this research design would be costly for researchers, participants and primary schools (Santamaría-Villar et al., 2021). It may also be less pressing to conduct research of this nature due to the fact that prior research has identified intervention programs designed for the differing age groups found in both primary and high school settings (Gol-Guven, 2017).

Considering this, another future research possibility considers conducting a meta-analysis of current conflict resolution programmes for children. Meta-analyses have been previously conducted regarding other school interventions, including social and emotional intelligence programs (Taylor et al., 2017). These meta-analyses are important for researchers to determine the overall findings of research in this field. While social and emotional interventions are relevant and important interventions to study and implement within schools, it should also be noted that there needs to be meta-analyses of conflict-resolution interventions within primary schools specifically as well, as they also play a role in academic, behavioural and social development of young students (Taylor et al., 2017). However, it should be noted that conducting a meta-analysis of conflict resolution interventions within primary schools may be difficult to conduct, as there are limited studies available addressing the specificity of this field and meta-analyses typically address a large volume of relevant studies (Kasari et al., 2016; Pina et al., 2021; Santamaría-Villar et al., 2021; Taylor et al., 2017).

The final potential research avenue addressed in this review is the development of further longitudinal studies to study the benefits of conflict resolution training in the long term. This potential research avenue was also identified by other researchers, who also note the benefits of seeing the long-term gains obtained by primary aged students with early conflict resolution interventions (Gol-Guven, 2017). Cross-sectional studies could be used instead, however, it may be difficult to identify older cohorts that have engaged in peer conflict resolution programs whilst at primary school (Gol-Guven, 2017). In addition, longitudinal studies may also yield additional information that correlates to peer conflict interventions, such as academic and behavioural records, which have been noted to be linked to severe peer conflicts (Arseneault, 2018; Gol-Guven, 2017; Wolke et al., 2013). This research avenue is therefore incredibly important to further consolidate the benefits of conflict interventions in primary school in the long term.


In conclusion, further research is required to address concerns of peer conflict within primary schools. One of the most effective ways, as determined by the research so far, is through intervention programmes (Gol-Guven, 2017; Pina et al., 2021; Santamaría-Villar et al., 2021). As identified in the literature, severe peer conflict can have lasting effects, not only throughout school life, but also into adulthood. Without intervention, peer conflict can impact not only the individual, but also the school community, in particular the school environment, as well as the broader community regarding illegal and workplace behaviours. The students facing severe and ongoing peer conflict may be left with ongoing wellbeing issues and poor social relationships, impacting colleagues and other work relationships and family relationships (Wolke et al., 2013). The negative consequences of not acting upon peer conflict concerns within primary schools may be able to be reversed in the future by implementing peer conflict and conflict resolution interventions now. It should be noted that there are various gaps in the current literature that should be filled; most significantly, this review has highlighted an absence of Australian research on peer conflict and conflict resolution in primary schools. It is important for future research to consider developing some Australian studies to ensure the applicability of interventions within Australian primary schools.


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New Directions in Guidance and Counselling Research: 2022 Edition Copyright © 2023 by Alannah McLatchey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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