8. Supervising International Higher Degree Researchers from Non-English Speaking Countries

Santosh Jatrana and Susan Gasson

Why read this chapter?

The chapter explores the challenges faced by international higher degree researchers from non-English speaking countries. We provide a tool outlining how to support higher degree researchers from non-English speaking countries to progress to completion.

This chapter will provide:

  • An overview of international higher degree researcher enrolment trends in Australia.
  • Supervisor responses to common challenges faced by higher degree researchers from non-English speaking countries.
  • A six-phase tool highlighting supervisory approaches that support the progress of higher degree researchers.

Overview of trends

The number and diversity of international higher degree researchers has steadily increased in Australia in the past two decades, with education being Australia’s third biggest export category. International education contributed more than $40 billion to the Australian economy in 2019 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2022). In 2023, there are more international students from non-English speaking countries (e.g., China and India) than at any time in the past (Wellard, 2023).

Our chapter builds on our expertise in supporting higher degree researchers. Santosh has a 100% completion rate for her international higher degree researchers. Susan’s input, as a researcher developer, has motivated Santosh to share her reflections on how to select and support higher degree researchers to completion. Together we have built a framework to help supervisors navigate challenges (e.g., cultural clashes, social isolation due to homesickness, stress in adjusting to new social norms, unfamiliarity with the education system) faced by international higher degree researchers. We describe approaches supervisors can take to enable success; the services and supports that are critical; and key decision points and how to navigate them. The tool helps supervisors build trusting and respectful relationships with their higher degree researchers, by addressing their research and career expectations through provision of tailored research education opportunities.

The international higher degree researchers considered in this chapter are higher degree researchers from non-English speaking countries who enrol in English-speaking countries. Santosh chose this focus because of her experience of challenges faced by higher degree researchers from a non-English speaking country attending studies in an English-speaking country. Santosh draws on her personal experiences as a higher degree researcher from India studying in Australia, and as an Australian university supervisor supporting higher degree researchers from non-English speaking countries. Susan has worked, as a research manager and developer in Australia, for more than 30 years with international higher degree researchers and their supervisors.

Supervisor responses to challenges faced

International higher degree researchers face language, cultural, and educational challenges. The induction of higher degree researchers by supervisors contributes to their successful transition to research education in a new environment. Supervisors ensure higher degree researchers share their expectations and that they respond to these in kind. If higher degree researchers’ expectations about their role and that of their supervisors are not addressed, this can result in confusion and stress. In some countries the supervisor directs the research, while in others higher degree researchers are encouraged to take ownership of their own research. Supervisors need to clarify their expectations early and support higher degree researchers in adjusting to their new research context. Clarifying expectations, such as with Paltridge and Starfield’s Role Perception Scale (2020), can be a good way to establish trust and respect. Trust and respect help to build a supervisor/higher degree researcher relationship that will endure the demanding years of a higher degree by research award. Further advice on responding to challenges will be provided in the next section.

Supervisors, as part of a broader institutional network, provide intellectual guidance, technical and laboratory support, administrative or managerial advice, and personal empathy. Their sensitivity to family and social concerns contributes to the mental health of higher degree researchers as they face the demands of higher degree research. With heavy teaching and service workloads, it is important that supervisors encourage higher degree researchers to access institutionally provided services (e.g., English language classes, daycare centres). Accessing these services ensures that higher degree researchers receive expert, sufficient, and timely attention.

Figure 8.1 provides a snapshot of the networks available to higher degree researchers (see also Chapter 3 and Chapter 4). The supervisor’s role is to be aware of these networks and to provide safe spaces where higher degree researchers can share concerns. Guiding and encouraging higher degree researchers to engage with various networks enriches their research experience. Broader networks ensure they have the support required to meet the challenges of research studies.

Five nested circles each with a different label indicating a group as part of the HDR network. The outer circle is labelled as Community Services. The next inner circle is labelled as Family and Friends. The next inner circle is labelled as University services. The next inner circle is labelled as Supervisors and peers. The smallest and innermost circle is labelled as Higher Degree Researcher.
Figure 8.1 Higher Degree Researcher networks by Santosh Jatrana and Susan Gasson, used under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 licence

Below are some key activities offered to international higher degree researchers by key networks. Supervisors can ensure international higher degree researchers access:

  1. Orientation: attend available orientation programs to help them become comfortable in their new environment. (See also Phase 1 of the higher degree researcher Supervisor framework).
  2. Resources: know how to access required resources, such as research materials, laboratory equipment, computer hardware and software, office equipment, etc.
  3. Time and money: are aware of the maximum time for their award and the budgetary and compliance considerations associated with completing the award. Higher degree researchers due to visa conditions may be constrained in their ability to fund their studies. Their ability to study may be conditional upon scholarship funding. The potential to finalise studies at home may be impossible because of infrastructure constraints. Family and community investments in higher degree researchers may be contingent on their success and timely return home. Supervisors need to be sensitive to these pressures that can make higher degree researchers more vulnerable to negative feedback, and less able to overcome setbacks in progressing their research.
  4. Cultural differences: feel that their cultural values have been considered and respected. Supervisors have a role in ensuring higher degree researchers understand the cultural values of their new environment and work to create an inclusive environment where cultural diversity is respected and celebrated. Through open discussions of any potential culture clashes critical advice and guidance can be offered and accepted. Supervisors, disciplines, and institutions can manage potential culture clashes by providing suitable orientation and support programs for higher degree researchers. These programs should include information about the local culture, education system, and language, as well as resources for adjusting to the new environment.
  5. Feedback and meetings: receive regular updates on progress to meeting requirements such as progress milestones. Regular meetings will be greatly valued and valuable.

Higher degree research supervision tool

The six phases of HDR supervision illustrated in Figure 8.2 summarises the support involved in supporting international higher degree researchers. Supervisory practices are shared that relate to each phase. The approach is designed to ensure a holistic approach. The phases accommodate the fact that each combination of higher degree researcher, supervisor, and project is unique, and that needs evolve during higher degree research studies.

Six phases of HDR supervision outlined in a circular shape. Phase 1 is labelled as Recruitment. Phase 2 is Pre and post arrival. Phase 3 is Pre confirmation strategies (up to one year). Phase 4 is Post confirmation strategies (2-3 years). Phase 5 is Finalising results and writing up (last 6 months) and the final phase 6 is labelled as the independent researcher (under examination and beyond).
Figure 8.2 Six phases of Higher Degree Research supervision by Santosh Jatrana and Susan Gasson, used under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 licence

Phase 1 – Recruitment

Santosh receives many emails from international students interested in studying a PhD in Australia, but, the ones she follows up have looked at her profile and can demonstrate interest in her research work. They can show that their research training and experience align with her areas of interest and expertise. She always looks up their graduating universities to assess their research capacity, and considers if the writing in the emails reflects a sufficient command of English. It is also reassuring if their referees are known to her or are part of her research network.

Three aspects of the higher degree researcher recruitment process are illustrated in Figure 8.3.

Figure 8.3 Three aspects of the Higher Degree Researcher recruitment process by Santosh Jatrana and Susan Gasson, used under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 licence

a) Selecting the person – During the recruitment phase it is important to start to get to know the person. Early evaluation of researcher expertise and fit to your interests will determine the need to schedule online or in person meetings to progress discussion. During meetings consider if you communicate well together, and if you can contribute to their research education. Read work prepared by applicants to consider how they write and their ways of thinking. Some supervisors set written tasks or tests to prompt the preparation of work for review. Encourage the applicant to ask questions on a range of topics including discussion of available scholarships, cost of living, and lifestyle considerations. Take account of the whole person, and their life circumstances in determining whether you will become their supervisor.

b) Developing the researcher – Consider applicants’ motivations for research studies. Their motivations will influence their drive for successful completion. Discuss their academic achievements, work experience, career plans, and any other criteria that can help you assess their fit for the project and award. Consider whether you can provide the right context for their research education. Will the project they propose allow them to realise their career plans? Have they the expertise and capacity to conduct the project they propose?

c) The research project – At this pre-candidature phase supervisors need to test if they can work with the applicant to define a project that meets award requirements and can be realised using the resources available. Industry-related projects must balance the fulfilment of industry-driven goals with award requirements. Supervisors may need to ensure industry stakeholders take account of research requirements. Theoretical projects, on the other hand, may have more freedom of scope, breadth, and depth. As a supervisor, your role is to assist the applicant in producing an original and significant knowledge contribution that meets award requirements.

Phase 2 – Pre and post-arrival strategies

Santosh’s most recent student came from a South-Asian country. Her admission was affected by COVID-19 related delays. Santosh helped her complete application forms and made processes seem a little less daunting.  She was granted a full scholarship, but her arrival was delayed and this impacted when she could attend induction. Santosh acted as a mentor and support as she applied for and obtained her student visa. On her first day on campus, Santosh met with her and introduced her to the staff in the office, oriented her to the facilities, and a range of centre services including health and accommodation facilities. Santosh introduced her to the graduate research office and encouraged contact with them for any award related questions. Then the student had a network to turn to for help. Santosh was very flexible about meeting times and sought to account for anything that would help her settle. Together they explored the provision of a prayer room, where to find ingredients to make culturally familiar meals, and the identification of part-time work opportunities.

As a supervisor make sure your higher degree researchers are aware of the different support services available and explain how to access these throughout their study period. Empower them to identify and use resources to build their self-confidence, adapt to the new social and research environment, and access tools to successfully manage their studies. Higher degree researchers should be ready to seek university and government guidance on a range of points, including those referenced below.

Pre-arrival orientation: Should include information on:

  • visa requirements
  • living and studying in the host country
  • accommodation and support services
  • tuition fee payment/ tuition waiver scholarship
  • budgeting for living expenses
  • welcome pack or guide from the university, information about the orientation program
  • medical insurance
  • community and social clubs and committees
  • childcare and education systems for international students with children in the country
  • transport options.

Post-arrival orientation: Institutional and government services may include advice on:

  • access to financial resources/scholarships/opening the bank account
  • health and medical services including university counselling services
  • career advisory services
  • academic and social support services
  • applying for the student identity card
  • building a peer group
  • accessing research material/library resources/desk and computer
  • accessing learning advisors/tutors
  • acquisition of academic skills such as research methodologies, data collection, and storage, analysis, and writing.

Community networks and mentorship:

Foster a sense of community by working with your higher degree researchers to establish cohort meetings or peer networks. Connect international students with more experienced peers, alumni, and professionals in the field who can provide them with guidance and advice. Your institution or discipline may provide academic mentors for international students to ensure they have support and guidance throughout their studies.

Training and development:

Be alert to, and address, your higher degree researchers’ developmental needs. Help them to develop a timeline that incorporates a professional development plan, publication plan, teaching appointments, conference presentations, an internship, etc. Show them how to explore and evaluate available professional development courses to prioritise those most relevant to their research and career expectations. Guide their appreciation of the tools and skills, support, and resources needed to succeed.

Cultural awareness:

Ensure that international students are acculturated to cultural differences. Some of these will support their socialisation and others their conduct of research within their host country. Socialization may include arranging informal meetings for new international students with other students and researchers, or assignment of a late-stage candidate as a mentor. Conduct of research advice may be covered in institutional inductions or online programs. If these are not available then supervisors may alert higher degree researchers to relevant codes, and discuss with international candidates particularly how these may vary to other countries’ research contexts.

Building trust and monitoring:

Ensure your meetings with higher degree researchers offer them a safe space where they can share challenges and celebrate successes. Create an open and supportive environment by:

  • communicating expectations clearly and regularly
  • providing clear, consistent, and regular feedback on their progress and performance
  • addressing any cultural differences that may arise
  • helping higher degree researchers identify resources or support that may be of help
  • monitoring progress on a regular basis to ensure higher degree researchers stay on track
  • encouraging higher degree researchers to take ownership of their work and become accountable for their commitments.

Open and frequent communication:

Communication is the key to ensuring that higher degree researchers know that they are seen and supported. Supervisors should not only offer regular feedback, guidance, and suggestions but also take time to listen to higher degree researchers’ needs and concerns. Allow international higher degree researchers to adjust their research plans and be flexible in planning for their success. Flexibility can be required to address time and financial pressures and meet family and scholarship provider commitments.


Supervisors can offer incentives and rewards for meeting specific goals. By taking them for coffee or lunch to celebrate the completion of a milestone, they will be motivated to achieve their goals in a timely manner and within the allotted timeframe. Recognise achievements and encourage the pursuit of research goals. Reward effort, incentivize risk-taking, and acknowledge growing persistence and resilience.

Phase 3 – Pre-confirmation strategies (0-1 year)

0-3 months

Santosh has had international higher degree researchers who struggle to meet requirements for confirmation. To pre-empt this issue, she now encourages them to read others’ work, and to keep writing and practicing. She asks them to schedule time every day to first read a paper, and then write about it. Initially, that may be a summary of the paper they have read. They are encouraged to look for and describe the gap in knowledge identified in the paper, and to begin to be alert to gaps in the literature.

She asks them to print out and become familiar with the requirements for the confirmation milestone. They can then set out when those steps must be met within their timeline and then work to that plan. Santosh explains that their writing develops through a series of drafts that she will review. Over time they can look back at previous drafts and see the progression of their writing through the preparation for confirmation period.

As the deadline for presentation approaches, Santosh encourages presentations to mentors, peers, and others, conducting up to four practice presentations before the confirmation event. That practice helps researchers learn to complete their presentations on time and to refine their slides based on audience feedback.

  • Be patient and maintain regular contact (at least weekly) or assign a buddy (a fellow HDR who is further down the track) who they can talk to as they adjust to their new home and understand the expectations of the supervisors and the project.
  • Discuss the project. If the project involves focused applied research, help them see the end goal and to write down some key milestones towards finishing the project. If the project is more theoretical, encourage them to read the literature around the key topic areas. Guide consideration of: Where is the state of the art? What is the knowledge gap?
  • Understand higher degree researchers’ key interests and strengths. Share the excitement of research education and the opportunity to build capacity and gain knowledge and expertise. Help them shape the project to build on their strengths and areas of interest. Share with them the scope and focus of the project appropriate for the knowledge contribution that will be expected by examiners. Discuss and prepare a timeline, account for the preparation of an ethics application, a data management plan, and a publication plan accounting for authorship arrangements as appropriate.

Up to 6 months

  • Continue to guide higher degree researchers to theory and methods literature that will refine their research question or hypothesis. Guide them towards a problem worthy of research, a suitable method and methodology, and work with them to ensure that the resources and infrastructure are available or can be found.
  • Encourage higher degree researchers to strongly engage with critical thinking activities. Set up a reading group where higher degree researchers can discuss interesting papers. Reading groups provide a safe space for modelling and practising critical evaluation and questioning. Normalise higher degree researchers’ giving presentations and contributing to peer review, so they come to see it as part of the researcher’s life.
  • The project may start taking a new direction. As the supervisor, guide your higher degree researchers – you may need to partially define the problem for some. Ensure they see a path forward for at least the next 6 months.
  • Discuss the proposed structure of the thesis. If that includes publications or a future patent, explore what that means for the work to come. Refer them to the library or research office for further advice as needed.
  • Review and discuss the timeline with higher degree researchers. Ensure you have accounted for and integrated the preparation of formal milestone requirements into project plan discussions. Ask yourself very honestly if the researcher can do a research award. Should they go towards confirmation? Is the project shaping up to be the best one for them? Do they need any additional supervisory assistance? Refer concerns to service providers for discussion as needed. (See also Chapter 2 and Chapter 5)

Towards confirmation (12 months)

  • Enhance higher degree researchers’ confidence and ability to communicate their research findings. Schedule more regular meetings and devote time to shaping their ideas. Set high standards for presentation of the results in reports and meetings, e.g., PowerPoint. Encourage peer review that discourages sloppy presentations. Explore presentation opportunities (e.g., conferences, competitions).
  • Empower your higher degree researchers to lead their research work, and take ownership of their projects by the time they reach confirmation. If a researcher is not capable of this, be clear it is an expectation, and that it is their responsibility to work toward ownership. Well-defined research hypotheses/ questions with a well-articulated plan to address the questions (s) will give them greater confidence. Be clear that the project is progressing, even though outcomes may not yet be clear, and plans may need further refinement or revisiting – the aim is the creation of new knowledge.
  • Revisit and revise the timeline. Review and revise as needed preparation of formal milestone requirements in project plan discussions. Consider adding the Three Minute Thesis competition or an internship to the plan. Schedule and complete confirmation. Discuss how activities align with research aspirations, career goals, and the timeline for completion.

Phase 4 – Post-confirmation strategies up to 24 months

After confirmation, one of Santosh’s higher degree researchers struggled to progress. In discussion with the researcher, university, college, and others, Santosh took great trouble to arrange for the student to relocate to another campus.  She had become too relaxed after confirmation and was not able to find the momentum required to progress well. Once she relocated, she rediscovered her passion for the project when surrounded by others at a similar stage of candidature, and in a homestay that let her connect with others with similar cultural values and practices. Santosh reminded the HDR that they were on the journey to completion together and that she could return to her original campus later if that would be helpful.

The vignette highlights the supervisor’s role in taking a personal interest in each candidate and making the time to consider their concerns. Being open to revising arrangements to ensure they feel supported and heard is more pressing for international students who have a greater investment in, and more adjustments to make in realizing candidature success.

  • Take time to celebrate confirmation. Encourage a break from work to refresh and prepare for the next stage of candidature. Emphasise that this is a marathon, not a sprint: research work requires a higher level of stamina than assessments in other award courses require.
  • Refer them to a career counsellor to discuss their professional development plans and explore activities that can inform their future career. Ask: “What are your career plans after graduation?” Explore with them how to gain additional skills or build their resume outside their direct project to support their plans. Consider identifying a mentor from the sector where they wish to work or introduce them to networks where they may encounter future employers. For example, if the researcher is entrepreneurial, they can attend courses or workshops, or you can link them to your network of industry contacts – maybe support them to do an internship. On the other hand, for higher degree researchers seeking academic futures, guide them towards more high-impact publications, visits to international labs, presentations at conferences, etc. to expand their networks/ collaborations for the future. Consider with them their readiness, at least in the short term, for the globally mobile and precarious life of the early career researcher.
  • Review their written skills. Discuss the preparation of a conference paper or publication to give them shorter-term goals to work toward that still progress their research work. Refer them to workshops or resources to build their writing skills for different genres.
  • Start to expect professional presentations on their work to date. Use existing professional development courses if there are concerns about the quality of their presentation skills. Ensure they see presentations of the standard required and discuss with them how their presentations could better reflect that standard. Seeing others benefit from attending conferences and international meetings, based on practice presentations within your group, may encourage improved effort.
  • Structure your meetings to encourage higher degree researchers to ‘lead’ the project, and be accountable for the time remaining. If they are experiencing challenges, ask prompting questions like “So why do you think that happened?” or “What could you do differently next time to address that?” While encouraging them to initiate the next steps, ensure they feel you are listening and supporting them. Frame your role more as a critical friend than an expert. Address any likely delays or progress concerns. (See also Chapter 2)

24-36 months

  • This is one of the toughest times for most higher degree researchers. They are under pressure to complete, need to make plans for transition to work and/or return to their home country, consider alternative funding as scholarship monies end, and pull together the chapters of the thesis to fully articulate their contribution to knowledge.
  • If things have not gone to plan, supervisors can help higher degree researchers consider applying for extensions. International student services can explain implications and processes for extensions: support visa and funding applications, and provide additional support.
  • Supervisors need to find extra time to engage in data interpretation and paper write-up as higher degree researchers push to create their first complete thesis draft.
  • Revisit the meeting schedule, timeline, and supervisor processes for review of written work. Set realistic goals and meet them as requested. Ensure higher degree researchers provide at least monthly reports on progress against the agreed timeline, and attach the latest drafts of written work for review.

Phases 5 – The remaining time i.e, Finalising results and writing up

Santosh’s higher degree researcher decided to study toward a thesis by publication, though he noted her preference for a monograph. She warned him that she would not accept publications in low quality journals. After two and a half years he had not had any papers accepted for publication. He had moved to Australia with family, and simultaneously a family member required medical support. He chose to buy a car to be more able to help with medical appointments. This put him under additional pressure financially. Helping with medical appointments also took time away from study. He became anxious that his scholarship was going to end in 6 months (at 3 years), and that he was nowhere near completion of a thesis by publication. Family matters were very distracting and he was under severe financial pressure. Santosh calmed him by taking stock with him.  He had completed all the analysis for the thesis chapters. They prepared a rationale for an extension request, setting out the additional time required. They then prepared a tight timeline, detailing the work for him to write and Santosh to review.  Santosh made it clear that the timeline was non-negotiable. She also referred him to support services to get advice on how to manage the stress and begin to address some of his financial and family difficulties.  The researcher delivered a thesis by monograph, applied for residency, and is now settled and working full-time in Australia.

This is a very stressful phase for most researchers. Be ready to give them more time and to build their confidence.

  1. Some students may need you to co-write with them to motivate them. i.e., sit in the same room (or join them on videoconference) and literally shape the page.
  2. Some will give you finished whole chapters. Santosh discourages that initially until they are writing confidently and well. Some sections may need more feedback and more iterative drafting and review.
  3. Read the whole thesis to consider the knowledge contribution. It is essential to simultaneously ensure that the writing is clear and that the big-picture thinking reflects the original or novel nature of the work. Involving other critical friends in reading the work can assist. Consider the need to find funding and time to employ an editor. Discuss the table of contents and headings to check for consistency and flow of the argument. Reviewing the first sentence of each paragraph within a chapter can ensure the argument flows through the work. Mind mapping on a whiteboard or large piece of paper may help to clarify the key findings.
  4. Universities may require a final milestone event (a “pre-completion seminar”) where the work is presented to an audience and reviewed by a panel of experts. The panel is asked to advise if the timeline is suitable, when an examinable thesis may be ready for consideration, and for final feedback. Document responses to feedback as practice for responding to examiner comments.
  5. Regular meetings and a checklist setting out a timeline for submission of drafts for feedback will help you keep track of progress. Ensure supervisors have established an efficient way to work together to provide timely feedback. Agree on how you can best progress smoothly toward a final draft.

Phase 6 – The final products

  1. The examination process may involve an oral defence or provision of the thesis for review. Supervisors are often responsible for the nomination of suitable examiners (check your institutional or national guidelines). Supervisors need to be aware of the thesis examination process and support the student to submit the thesis in a suitable format to meet examiner and institutional requirements.
  2. Make time to celebrate. Having a physical thesis to hand can be important. A higher degree researcher ceremonially giving a copy to the supervisor, acknowledging the shared challenge overcome, can be joyous.
  3. By the end of the candidature, the higher degree researcher should have become the master of their chosen field, and know more about it than you.
  4. You can support them by providing references for job applications and discussing future work they may wish to plan in terms of postdoctoral positions or funding opportunities, grants, publications, teaching, and research projects.

This chapter has described a broad process that you can go through in supervising international students, given the various challenges that they may face, particularly if they come from non-English speaking countries. The chapter explained the Higher Degree Research Supervision Tool model, with its six steps from recruitment to graduation, and the support that a supervisor can provide to help an HDR student become an independent researcher by the end of their research journey.

Evidence of practice

Are there points made above that you might incorporate into your supervisory practice? Consider one of your current international higher degree researchers who has a particular challenge you wish to address. Articulate that challenge, and then explore your practices, patterns of celebration and reward, and the higher degree researcher’s networks accessed or accessible. Are there other practices you could use to better address the challenges? Try applying up to three of those practices and then write up what happened and any next steps required to resolve the challenge faced.

Additional Resources

While most of these sources and additional readings are freely available, some are not. The lock icon Closed lock icon beside an entry indicates that the source may be available from your library.

Cotterall, S. (2015). The rich get richer: International doctoral candidates and scholarly identity. Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 52(4), 360-370. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2013.839124 Closed lock icon

Department of Education. (2022). International student numbers by country, by state and territory. https://www.education.gov.au/international-education-data-and-research/international-student-numbers-country-state-and-territory

Tight, M. (2021). Globalization and internationalization as frameworks for higher education research. Research Papers in Education, 36(1), 52-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2019.1633560 Closed lock icon

Wit, H. d., & Altbach, P. G. (2021). Internationalization in higher education: global trends and recommendations for its future. Policy Reviews in Higher Education, 5(1), 28-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/23322969.2020.1820898 Closed lock icon


While most of these sources and additional readings are freely available, some are not. The lock icon Closed lock icon beside an entry indicates that the source may be available from your library.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2022). International trade: Supplementary information, financial year. https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/economy/international-trade/international-trade-supplementary-information-financial-year/latest-release

Paltridge, B., & Starfield, S. (2020). Thesis and dissertation writing in a second language: A handbook for students and their supervisors (2nd ed.). Routledge. Closed lock icon

Wellard, J. (2023). Keynote Address Australia-China Education and Tourism Symposium 2023 Sydney, Australia. https://universitiesaustralia.edu.au/media-item/keynote-address-australia-china-education-and-tourism-symposium-2023/



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Confident Supervisors: Creating Independent Researchers Copyright © 2023 by Santosh Jatrana and Susan Gasson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.